Friday, January 11, 2019

Saxon Kings and Saints

Investigating our direct family tree lines, I have come across quite a few kings of various European royal houses. One of those branches is the line (at least part of it) of the Saxon Kings of England.

I start the ancestors' introduction with Cerdic, son of Elesa, our direct maternal great-grandfather (52 generations back)*. Cerdic was the first king and the founder of Wessex (West Saxon kingdom). He reigned between 519 and 534.



Then goes the mysterious Creoda, born in 493, possibly a son or grandson (?) of Cerdic. At this point, things are a bit complicated as it seems not to be clear whether Creoda's son was Cynric (born about 525) or the latter one was the son of Cerdic. Anyhow, Cynric was king of the West Saxons from 534 to 560 (the year of his death). Some sources say he might have ruled jointly with Cerdic (519-534).

Cynric's son was Ceawlin - he succeeded his father and reigned from 560 to 591. Cynric was exiled in 592 and killed a year later.


Celtic and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in ≈ 600

Ceawlin's son Cuthwine (our direct ancestor - 51 generations back) was not king of Wessex as the throne had been taken over by Ceol, Cuthwine's cousin. As a result of that, the latter one had to live in exile. Cuthwine died about 581. His youngest and third son was

Cutha (Cuthwolf), born about 592, during the reign of King Ceol, his uncle. Cutha was banished, in his older years he probably moved to Devon. Cuthwolf's wife was Gwynhafar, princess of Dumnonia, daughter of Clemens ap Beldrich (king of Dumnonia).

Cliffs of Devon

By the way, the capital of the kingdom of Dumnonia was where nowadays is the city of Exeter.

The next ancestor in our family tree line is Cutha and Gwynhafar's son Ceolweald. He was never a king and not much is known about him, besides that he had a son Coenred/Cenred.

Cenred born about 644 (our great-grandfather, 48 generations back) is the next ancestor in that family line. Possibly he co-ruled Wessex with his son Ine.

Then comes Cenred's son Ingild (b. ≈ 680/d. ≈ 718 ?),
his son Eoppa (b. ≈ 706/d. ?,
his son Eaba (b. ≈ 732/d. ≈ 762),
his son Ealhmund (b. ≈ 758/d. ≈ 786), King of Kent (in 784 and in 786)

Kingdom of Kent

his son Egbert (Ecgberht) born ≈ 770 in Wessex, our direct maternal ancestor (43 generations back) was the king of West Saxons from 802 until his death in 839. He was also king of Sussex, Kent, Surrey, and Essex. Egbert succeeded in creating a very strong kingdom and is recognized as the first king of the entire England.

England during Egbert's reign


His son Æthelwulf (b. ≈ 800/d. 13 Jan. 858) was sub-king of Kent, bishop of Winchester, later king of Wessex (from 839 to 838). He fought successfully against the Danes. Æthelwulf's first wife was the noblewoman of the name Obsurga, daughter of Oslac. The couple had one son

Alfred born ≈ 849 in Wantage, Berkshire (nowadays Oxfordshire), know as Alfred the Great, ruled as king from 871 to 899. When he was a boy, Alfred visited Rome twice. He was also confirmed in Rome, during the ceremony carried out by Pope Leo VI. Alfred - the Great King of Saxons fought the Danes, defeated them in May 878 (the battle of Edington).

Alfred the Great - Winchester

Alfred made the defeated Viking leader (whose name was Guthrum) be baptized in Christian faith, and was Guthrum's godfather as well. He was a great ruler not only regarding the battlefield. To read more about him got to any encyclopedia or this article.

In 868, he married the noble lady Ealhswith whose ancestor was Coenwulf, king of Mercia. She is recognized by Christians as a saint and her feast day is on 20 July. I have tried to find out more about Ealswith the Saint - no success so far.

England in the year 878


Their son Edward (born 874), called the Elder. He reigned from the year 899 to 924. He annexed the kingdom of Mercia, captured the Danes, boroughs of Derby, Lincoln, Leicester, Nottingham and Stanford. Edward had three wives. The third one, Eadgifu of Kent was the mother of

Edmund I (born ≈ 921) who became king when he was eighteen (939). Edmund succeeded in defeating the Vikings in the Midlands and Northumbria. When he was twenty-five, he was stabbed and killed by a thief. Edmund died in Dorset on 26 May 946.

Silver penny by Edmund I

His first wife was Ælfgifu (Elgiva) of Shaftesbury. The name Ælfgifu means more or less "elf's gift". The wife of King Edmund was the patroness of Shaftesbury which she had received from her husband. Later, she became a nun at the Shaftesbury abbey where she died and was buried in 944. Many healings/miracles have been said to happen at her tomb, that was why she has been venerated as a saint. Her feast day is 18 May.


Ruins of Shaftesbury Abbey

Their son Edgar I, king of the English, born ≈ 944, ruled from 959 to 975. Edgar of the nickname The Peaceful was crowned and anointed as king in 933. The order of the coronation ceremony which was introduced then and among others included the citation from the Bible, has been practiced during the coronations of English rulers ever since. 

Edgar's reign was the time of peace, working with bishops he created the conditions which led to the rebirth of religion/monasteries in the country. As a result of that, the church of England started sending missionaries to Scandinavia. King Edgar died on 8 July 975. He is revered as a saint, his feast day is 8 July.

Edgar's third wife was Ælfthryth (Elfrida). They married about 965. Ælfthryth was crowned and anointed as Queen of the Kingdom of England. The lady's reputation has been shadowed by two alleged murders. One - of her first husband Æthewald who married Elfrida although he knew king Edgar was interested in her as a candidate for queen. The second was the death of Elfrida's stepson Edward on 19 March 978.

Edgar and Elfrida's son Æthelred was born in ≈ 968. He was crowned when he was ten years old and ruled struggling from 978 to 1016. His knickname was The Unready. Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu who was also the mother of our great-grandpa (36 generations back).

Silver penny of Æthelred The Unready


Edmund born ≈ 992, reigned from April to November 1016. He was quite a warrior, fought the Danes bravely in four battles - won three, lost one. No wonder, he earned the name Ironside. Edmund married Ealdgyth.

Their son Edward born ≈ 1016. He was an infant when his father died and the country had already been taken over by the Danish King Cnut the Great. Edward and his brother lived in exile. Supposedly, when they were babies, they were to be murdered but instead were saved and managed to survive. After many years, Edward returned to England in 1057 with his wife Agatha and their children. Sadly, Edward was murdered in the same year. His body was buried in the oldest part of St. Paul's Cathedral in London.

His daughter Margaret of Wessex, known also as Margaret of Scotland. I have already written about her and explained how the family branch goes from her to our great-great-grandmother. That is why I will not repeat it here.

Flag of Wessex, designed by William Crampton in the 1970s

In the next post I am going to come back to Plano, Collin County, Texas.

*based on my research

Sources:
  • The online version of "Kings, Queens, Bones & Bastards: Who's Who in the English Monarchy from Egbert to Elizabeth II" by David Hilliam, ebook edition published in 2011,
  • Online encyclopedia Britannica
  • Czytelnia 
  • Wikipedia

Photos:
  • Anglo-Saxon migration routes: By my work - Based on Jones & Mattingly's Atlas of Roman Britain (ISBN 978-1-84217-06700, 1990, reprinted 2007, pp. 317, 318), Haywood's Dark Age Naval Power (ISBN 1-898281-43-2, 1999, cemeteries on pp. 84–86, 121, region of "Romanisation" on p. 151), Lebecq's The Northern Seas (fifth to eighth centuries) (in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol I c.500–c.700, ISBN 13-978-0-521-36291-7, 2005, p. 643), and Wood's The Channel from the 4th to the 7th centuries AD in Carver's Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons (ISBN 978-0906780930, pp 93–97). The suggestion that settlements in Britain were made from the Bessin is from Haywood (Vron, for example, was abandoned c. 450).Jones & Mattingly also show 5th century cemeteries in the central English Midlands south of the River Trent, based on the dating of excavated cemeteries, but this is disputed by historians arguing for a 6th century Anglo-Saxon expansion into that region (see, for example Annals and the Origin of Mercia, pp. 20–24, by Wendy Davies, in Mercian Studies, 1977, ISBN 0718511484).The topographic map is from File:Europe relief laea location map.jpg, with copyright notice {{self|cc-by-sa-3.0}}, downloaded 9 Oct 2010, with modifications done by myself., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24156581
  • Map Celtic and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in about 600: By Hel-hama - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=20005086
  • Kingdom of Kent: By Hel-hama - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=20372945
  • Devon cliffs: By Romazur - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=32329800
  • Alfred the Great - monument: By Odejea, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=295317
  • Map - England during Egbert's reign - map of England By Mike Christie at English Wikipedia - Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2986680
  • Ruins of Shaftesbury Abbey: By Mike Smith, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=34189738
  • Map - England in 878: By Hel-hama - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19885072
  • Flag of Wessex: By Hogweard - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19961640




Wednesday, January 2, 2019

George Washington

According to the MyHeritage book report related to our family tree, one of the persons whom we are indirectly related to via Augustine Washington Jr is George Washington. Augustine was George's half-brother and Ann Lee (Aylett)'s brother-in-law.

Ann Lee nee Aylett (b. about 1738 in Stratford, Westmoreland, Virginia/d. 12 Dec. 1768 in Westmoreland co., VA) was the wife of Richard Henry Lee. Richard Henry was a nephew of  William Fitzhugh II's wife. William was our 1st cousin seven times removed.

Very indirect and distant relation indeed. But still a relation.


George Washington Birthplace National Monument area, Potomac River, Virginia

There is another family branch which links us to Mr. George Washington via Washington and Lee families:

George Washington

his brother John Augustine Washington (b. 13 Jan. 1736, Wakefield Plantation, Popes Creek, Washington Parish, Westmoreland, Colony of Virginia/ d. 17 Feb. 1787, Bushfield, Westmoreland, Virginia)

his son Corbin Washington (b. about 1765, Bushfield, Westmoreland, Virginia/d. 10 Dec. 1799, Bushfield, Westmoreland, Virginia)

his wife Hannah Washington nee Lee (b. about 1765, Chantilly, Westmoreland County, Virginia/d. 23 Nov. 1802, Alexandria, Fairfax, Virginia)

Ben Brenman Park, Alexandria, Virginia

her father Richard Henry Lee (b. 20 Jan. 1732, Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia/d. 19 June 1794, Chantilly Hill, Westmoreland County, Virginia)


his father Col. Thomas Lee (b. about 1690, Coles Point, Westmoreland County, Virginia/d. 14 Nov. 1750, Stratford Hall, Westmoreland County, Virginia)

Stratford Hall

his sister Ann Mary Fitzhugh nee Lee (b. about 1683, Machodoc, Westmoreland County, Virginia/d. 12 Jan. 1732, Eagles Nest, King George, Virginia)

her husband William Fitzhugh II (b. about 1679, Eagles Nest, Stafford, Virginia/d. about 1713, Ravensworth, Fairfax Co., VA) - our 1st cousin 7 times removed

his mother Sarah Fitzhugh nee Tucker (b. 2 August 1663, Stafford, Westmoreland, VA/d. about 1715, Eagles Nest, Stafford, Virginia)

her brother Robert Tucker (b. about 1652, Charles City County, VA/d. about 1704, Charles City County, VA) - our direct ancestor - 8 generations back

his son Robert Tucker Jr. (b. 10 May 1676, Charles City County, VA/d. 26 Sept. 1744, Amelia County, VA)

his son William Tucker Sr. (b. about 1718, Prince George, VA/d. 19 March 1791, Powhatan, VA)

his son David Tucker (b. about 1762, Amelia County, VA/d. ?)

his daughter Rachel Obelier Stimson nee Tucker - our  great-great-grandmother

based on my MyHeritage research

Photos:
  • Alexandria, VA: By Taylordw - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=63207052
  • Ken Lund from Reno, Nevada, USA [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Chantilly: By EikwaR - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27237840
  • Stratford Hall: Internet Archive Book Images [No restrictions], via Wikimedia Commons





Wednesday, December 26, 2018

Anton Dybowski and His Prussian Infantry Unit

My great-grandfather Antoni (Anton) Dybowski was born in the territory of Poland which had been taken over by Prussia due to the 3rd Partition of Poland which took place in 1795. I neither know the date of his birthday nor where exactly he was born. Possibly it was the nowadays Kuyavian-Pomeranian region of Poland as he lived with his wife Bronisława and daughter Irena in the Toruń area.

When WW1 began, Antoni was appointed to the Prussian army. In the picture below we can see him (last row, the man in the middle) and his fellow soldiers, probably before they were sent to the war front.


Grandpa did not come back from the war, he was killed during the fights. I tried to find out where and when he fell, therefore I searched the German archives of WW1 casualties.

To my surprise, the searched results showed nine entries regarding nine men of the same name Anton Dybowski. To make it more difficult, eight of them were from the Toruń region. Studying the records, I could eliminate four Antons who were wounded but did not die. The information about other four you can see below:

1. Anton Dybowski
Page number: 12020
Edition: 937
Date: 13 April 1916
Place: Koncheitz, Thorn (present Kończewice, Toruń district)
List: Prussia 505
Regiment: Reserve Infantry Regiment 53, Company A
Status: missing
Gov Id: KONITZJO93GE

2. Anton Dybowski
Page number 15477
Edition: 1203
Date: 12 October 1916
Place: Konchewitz, Thorn
List: Prussia 657
Regiment: Infantry Regiment 145, Company 12
Status: fallen
GOV Id: KONITZJO93GE

3. Anton Dybowski
Page number 4265
Edition: 365
Date: 14 Jan. 1915
Place: Leibitsch, Thorn (present Lubicz, Toruń District)
List: Prussia 125
Regiment: Reserve Infantry Regiment 59, III Battalion, Company 9
Status: missing
GOV Id: LEISCHJO93JA

4. Anton Dybowski
Page number 29394
Edition: 2348
Date: 28 Feb. 1919
Place: Drzonowo, Culm (Drzonowo, Chełmno District)
List: Prussia 1377
Regiment: Fusilier Regiment 40, Company 1
Status: missing
GOV Id: DRZOWOJO93IG
24.04.1898

After some further investigation, I decided to discard no. 4 as (according to the photos found on the net), the type of uniform worn by grandpa and the soldiers of his unit was not Fusilier but Infantry uniform. Besides, my grandmother and Anton's daughter was born in 1912. The date given in the record suggests that Anton no. 4 was born in 1898 - he was fourteen in 1912. It would not have been possible for a boy at that age to be a father of course but it all does not match. The uniform for sure.

Anton No. 1 and 2 were listed in the same village, maybe they even knew each other. However, records No. 1 and 3 say those men were missing. They could have been killed of course but their bodies were not found.

As far as I know, my great-grandmother received a message which clearly stated that her husband had fallen. It means Anton No. 2 is the one. I have tried to find out where were the 145 Infantry Regiment men in October 1916. One source says they took part in the Argonne Forrest, Fille Morte area. Another one tells they fought in the Vosges.

Mum told me a story which she heard from her mother, Anton's daughter. According to that grandma Irena (who was four then), had a music box on her bedside table. She had got the music toy from her dad. On the night when Anton died, the box woke little Irena up - it opened and closed itself three times, one by one.

I wish I could find out more about Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 53 and 59. All in all, it seems all of them - Anton No. 1, 2 and 3 fell somewhere in France.


The song "Argonnerwaldlied" (Forrest of Argonne Song) was composed by Herman Albert Gordon in 1914/1915.






Friday, December 14, 2018

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick was a brother-in-law of our great-grandmother Rachel Belle Zorie (Stimson) Howard's brother Josiah L. Stimson.

The Kirkpatrick family origins are connected with Scotland. However, Elbert Wiley's grandmother's lines (his mother's side) go to Germany and Ireland.

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick was born on 12 October 1844 in Whitesburg, Hamblen County, Tennessee to the family of  Jacob M. Kirkpatrick and Sarah Jane Campbell. When he was ten, Elbert, his parents and siblings relocated to Collin County Texas. Eight years later, Elbert Wiley joined the Confederate Army and Served in Texas Partisan Rangers (Fifth Regiment of Company I) under Col. Leonidas M. Martin. When the war ended, Elbert came back to Texas where he ran the family farm.

In 1870, Elbert was registered in the Census. He lived with his mother, brothers and sisters in Precinct No. 1 of Collin County, Texas. The record states that Elbert was a surveyor then.

Elbert Kirkpatrick
United States Census, 1870
Name: Elbert Kirkpatrick
Event: Type Census
Event: Year 1870
Event: Place Texas, United States
Gender: Male
Age: 25
Race: White
Race: W
Birth Year (Estimated): 1844-1845
Birthplace: Tennessee
Page Number: 61

Household

Sarah Kirkpatrick, Female, age 47, born in Tennessee
Elbert Kirkpatrick, Male, age 25, born in Tennessee
Adaline Kirkpatrick, F, age 21, born in Tennessee
Mary Kirkpatrick, F, age 19, born in Tennessee
Wilkins Kirkpatrick, M, age17, born in Tennessee
Frances Kirkpatrick, F, age 15, born in Tennessee
Dulcina Kirkpatrick, F, age 13, born in Texas

Record Source:
"United States Census, 1870," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MXGG-RC5 : 12 April 2016), Elbert Kirkpatrick in household of Sarah Kirkpatrick, Texas, United States; citing p. 61, family 414, NARA microfilm publication M593 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 553,078.

Jacob M. Kirkaptrick died in 1858. It seems Elbert supported the family financially later.

Blooming blueberry bush

Our Elbert Wiley was a self-educated man. In the year 1871, he worked as a teacher at the Wilson Creek school (which was three miles north of Allen) in Collin County .

On 5 November 1874, Elbert married Miss Emily Terrell Clive, daughter of George Clive and Martha "Patsy" Winston Carr, born on 17 June 1848 in Virginia.

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick was very much interested in growing plants (nuts and fruits) which resulted in establishing a nursery (1874 as well) in White Grove's where he lived with his family.

Pecan

Three years later, Elbert Wiley, his wife, and children moved to McKinney, Collin, Texas. According to the online Handbook of Texas, the couple had six children but only four of them survived until adulthood. I managed to find the information about four children only:

Ray H. Kirkpatrick - born on 16 Sept. 1876,
Alice Kirkpatrick - born on 13 August 1878 in Texas,
Sarah (Sadie) Kirkpatrick - born on 30 July 1880, (2)
Jack Kirkpatrick - born on 10 July 1882/d. 16 Jan. 1883.

Elbert's mother Sarah Jane left this world on 14 April 1898 in McKinney. Her son E. W. was fifty-four then.

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick led a very active life. He wrote articles for various gardening journals and worked as an editor of the McKinney Democrat. His work helped found such associations as Central Texas Pomological and Agricultural Association, Texas State Nurserymen's Association, and Texas Nut Growers Association.

Blackberry flower

 If it was not enough, here is the list of the positions he held:

President of
  • Texas Nut Growers Association,
  • Texas State Nurserymen's Association,
  • The Whitesboro Orchard and Fruit Company,
  • The Nueces Land and Immigration Company,
  • Texas Nursery Company,
  • Texas Industrial Congress (1908)
Walnut

Board of directors member for
  • Durant Nursery Company,
  • The Collin County Mill and Elevator Company,
  • The New Century Milling Company,
  • The Burrus Milling Company 

Vice President of
  • Texas State Fair Association (1908)
Blooming raspberry bush

Chairman of
  • The McKinney Chamber of Commerce (the beginning of the 1920s)

Member of
  • The Sate Council of Defence (WW1), 
  • the state food conservation organization (WW1)

County Chairman of
  • The YMCA War Fund Committee (WW1 as well).

Quite impressive, isn't it? It all seems more than the life of one person only. Elbert Wiley was certainly not an average guy at all.

In 1902, Elbert's house was built in McKinney at 903 Parker Street.

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick's House

 Mr. E.W. Kirkpatrick also hosted the annual meetings of the Civil War Veterans in his house.


Clipping Source:
Bagwill, Arthur A. The Plano Star-Courier (Plano, Tex.), Vol. 44, No. 24, Ed. 1 Thursday, August 2, 1923, newspaper, August 2, 1923; Plano, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth570539/: accessed December 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Collin County Genealogical Society.

The anniversary meeting which took place in 1923 was attended by about 90 veterans of the Trans-Mississippi Division of the Confederate Army. Elbert, the host, was at the rank of lieutenant general.

A few months later Mr. Kirkpatrick contracted pneumonia during his business trip to New Mexico. He passed on 24 March 1874. Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick was buried at Pecan Grove Cemetery in McKinney, Collin, Texas.

 

Our family line

Elbert Wiley Kirkpatrick
his sister Mary Ethelyn Stimson nee Kirkpatrick (b. 19 July 1850, Greene, Tennessee/d. 2 Oct. 1940, Sanger, Denton County, Texas)
her husband Josiah Long Stimson (b. 31 Dec. 1839, Kentucky/d. 12 August 1917, Collin County, Texas)
his sister Rachel Belle Zorie (Belzora) Howard nee Stimson - our great-grandmother


Sources:
  • Handbook of Texas by Texas State Historical Association
  • A History of Collin County, Texas: Stambaugh, J. Lee, b. 1889; Stambaugh, Lillian J., b. 1888 & Carroll, H. Bailey. A History of Collin County, Texas, book, 1958; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth61096/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu;.
  • (1)"California Death Index, 1940-1997," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VP46-8M6 : 26 November 2014), Ray H Kirkpatrick, 16 Dec 1964; Department of Public Health Services, Sacramento.
  • (2)"Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K3QH-YQC : 13 March 2018), Sarah Kirkpatrick, 26 Dec 1929; citing certificate number 57602, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,135,162.
  • findagrave.com 
Photos: 
Blueberry bush: By Kurt Stüber [1] - caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/mavica/index.html part of www.biolib.de, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7997,
Pecan: By Bruce Marlin - Own work: http://www.cirrusimage.com/tree_pecan.htm, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5741662,
Blackberry flower: By I, Luc Viatour, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org
/w/index.php?curid=1434374,
Raspberry bush flower: By Wo st 01 / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10575911

Photo of the house: Beckyquilts [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons.




Friday, November 30, 2018

John Tyler III and John Tyler IV

Soon I will come back to the early settlers of Collin County, TX. Today I present the family tree branch which leads to Mr. John Tyler III and his son of the name John Tyler as well.

John Tyler III was born on 28 February 1747 in Williamsburg, the colony of Virginia. His great-grandfather Henry emigrated from England and settled in the Virginia Colony.

Colonial Williamsburg, VA

John Tyler Sr., besides being a planter and a judge was also the 15th Virginia Governor. In 1776 he served in the 3rd Virginia Regiment of the Continental Army.

Around 1776, he built Greenway plantation (Charles City, Virginia) where his children, including John Tyler Jr. were born.

Charles City, historic courthouse, Virginia

John Tyler III passed in his home on 6 January 1813.

The man who connects us to John Tyler III and his son is Jefferson F Davis, the husband of Sarah Knox, our 5th cousin four times removed.

Then the family branch goes to

John Tyler II, mentioned above (born on 25 March 1790/d. 18 Jan. 1862, Richmond, Virginia), he bought the Sherwood Plantation in 1945 which became his family home since then.

Sherwood Forest Plantation, Virginia

his daughter Elizabeth Waller nee Tyler (b. 11 July 1823, Virginia/d. 1 June 1850, Virginia)

her son William Griffin Waller (b. 1843, Williamsburg, Williamsburg City, VA/d. 24 July 1894, Alum Springs, Pulaski County, Virginia)

his wife Jane Kempe Waller nee Howell (b. 9 August 1844, Natchez, Adams County, MS)

her sister Varina Anne Banks Davis nee Howell (b. 7 May 1826, Natchez, Adams, MS/d. 16 Oct. 1906, Manhattan, New York, New York)

her husband Jefferson Finnis Davis (b. 3 June 1808, Christian County, Kentucky/d. 6 Dec. 1889, New Orleans, Louisiana)

his first wife Sarah Knox Davis nee Taylor - our 5th cousin 4 times removed

her father Zachary Taylor - our 4th cousin 5 times removed

his father Richard Lee Taylor - our 3rd cousin  6 times removed (b. 3 April 1774, Rapidan, Orange County, Virginia/d. 19 Jan. 1829, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky)

Rapidan, Passenger Depot

his mother Elizabeth Taylor nee Lee - 2nd cousin 7 times removed (b. 25 May 1709, Hadleigh, Suffolk, England/d. April 1750, Lancaster, Virginia)

River Brett, Hadleigh, England

her mother Sarah Elizabeth Lee nee Allerton - our 1 cousin 8 times removed (b. circa 1671, Westmoreland, Westmoreland County, Virginia/d. 17 May 1731, Ditchley, Northumberland County, Virginia)

her father Isaac Allerton (Ollerton), Jr. (b. 22 May 1627, Plymouth, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts/d. 25 Oct. 1702, Cople Parish, Westmoreland, Virginia)

his sister Rose Tucker nee Allerton - our 6 times great-grandmother (b. circa 1633, Carleton Manor, Yorkshire, England/d. circa 1712, Westmoreland, Virginia)

Genealogy researches do not agree on the matter who Rose Tucker's parents were. I mean Rose whose first husband was John Tucker. Some claim they were not Isaac Allerton Sr. and his wife Fear.

However, according to the book "Seldens of Virginia and allied families"* by Mary Selden Kennedy Rose was a daughter of Isaac and Fear Allerton's. Besides, in another source, I came across the information that Isaac Sr. had 21 children altogether. So it could be more than the two only with Fear (Sarah and Isaac Jr.) mentioned most often.

her son Robert Tucker (b. circa 1652, Charles City County, Virginia/d. circa 1704, Charles City Co., VA)

his son Robert Tucker Jr. - our 4 times great grandfather

his son William Tucker Sr. - our 3 times great-grandfather (b. circa 1718, Prince George County, Virginia/d. 19 March 1791, Powhatan, Virginia)

his son David Tucker - our great-great-great-grandfather (b. circa 1762, Amelia County, Virginia)

his daughter Rachel Obellier Stimson nee Tucker - our  great-great-grandmother


* Seldens of Virginia and allied families, Volume II, by Mary Selden Kennedy, Frank Allaben Genealogical Company, Three West Forty-Second Street, New York, 1911.

The post based on my MyHeritage research.

Photos:

  • Colonial Williamsburg By Tasma3197 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15513648
  • By Mojo Hand - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=68348227
  • Sherwood Plantation: By Pi3.124 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=50490593
  • Rapidan By Cecouchman - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=25368310 
  • River Brett: By Andrew Hill, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14182222



Tuesday, November 27, 2018

William Washington Gant

I have already written about a cousin of the name William Washington Gant but this time I tell you about a different ancestor of the very same first and middle name.

William Washington Gant, our 3rd cousin 4 times removed, was born on 24 October 1844 in Tennessee. He was one of the ten children of John Isham Gant and Mary Jane Cocke.

On 7 Sept. 1850, the Census recorded William lived with his family in 9 District of Maury County, Tennessee. His father John was a merchant. The value of John's real estate was $4.400. Besides William's parents and siblings, 9 other persons lived in the household - Joseph Crawford and J. O. Griffith (described in the record as teachers), and 7 boys - students. The lodgers' surnames Crawford, Griffith, Saunders, Gates, Bowles, Pope, and Dowell occur in our family tree so very likely those men were related to the Gants. However, I manage to find a G A Pope only. He was Gustavus Adolphus Pope (b. 17 Jan. 1834 in Williamson, Tennessee). William Washington Gant and Gustavus were cousins.

William Gant
United States Census, 1850
Name: William Gant
Event Type: Census
Event Year: 1850
Event Place: Maury County, part of Maury, Tennessee, United States
Gender: Male
Age: 6
Race: White
Birth Year (Estimated): 1844
Birthplace: Tennessee, United States
House Number: 357

Household
John F Gant, Male, age 37, born Tennessee, United StatesMartha Gant, Female, age 30, born Tennessee, United States
Rich Gant, M, age 10, born Tennessee, United States
Sisey Gant, F, age 8, born Tennessee, United States
William Gant, M, age 6, born Tennessee, United States
John Gant, M, age 3, born Tennessee, United States
Ella Gant, F, age 1, born Tennessee, United States
Joseph Crawford, M, age 26, born Ireland
J O Griffith, M, age 37, born Tennessee, United States
R P Griffith, M, age 22, born Tennessee, United States
D D Saunders, M, age 17, born Alabama, United States
Joseph M Gates, M, age 13, born Alabama, United States
W C McQuiston, M, 18, born Kentucky, United States
A J Bowles, M, age 11, born Mississippi, United States
G A Pope, M, age 15, born Tennessee, United States
P A Dowell, M, age 15, born Tennessee, United States

Record Source:
"United States Census, 1850," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MCD5-R2C : 12 April 2016), William Gant in household of John F Gant, Maury county, part of, Maury, Tennessee, United States; citing family 357, NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

The transcription contains some errors. In the record there is John I Gant, not John F. Another thing - it is not Sisy but Lucy.

It seems John Isham Gant provided a good educational environment to his children and the sons of relatives. Gustavus Adolphus Pope became a pharmacist (1), R. P. Griffith was later a teacher (2).
D. D. Saunders could very likely Dudley Dunn Saunders - a future physician and surgeon (3).

Young William Washington was with the G Company of the 4th Mississippi Company Confederate Army during the Civil War. He was promoted to Corporal. (4)

After the war, on 28 May 1866 (5), 21-year-old William got married to 3 years younger Miss Alethia Ann Norwood. She was born on 23 October 1847 in Alabama. I do not know who her parents were however, there are other Norwood people in our family tree as well.

William and Alethia had ten children - eight sons and two daughters.
  • Norwood Isham b. 25 April 1868, TN /d. 12 April 1919, Memphis, Shelby, TN (6)
  • O. R. - b. 1 Sept. 1868 / d. 26 July 1935, Fort Worth, Tarrant, TX (7)
  • William Irl b. 1871, Water Valley, MS/d. 16 Dec. 1935, Norwood, East Feliciana, Louisiana (8)
  • Mattie Desha b. 6 August 1873, Mississippi/d. 19 Jan. 1951, Dallas, Dallas, TX (9)
  • Robert Lee b. 23 Luly 1876/ d. ?      (5)
  • Albert S b. 14 May 1879, Panola, MS/d. 23 Oct. 1931, Crystal Spring, Copiah, MS (10)
  • Nelli Mae b. 22 May 1883/d. 15 Oct. 1946, Dallas, Dallas, TX (11)
  • Walter Stewart b. 1885, MS/d. 5 Jan 1936, Memphis, Shelby, TN (12)
  • Charles Dewitt b. 8 Oct. 1888, Eureka Springs, MS/d. 27 Dec 1946 (13)

You can see the years 1935/36 and 1946 were quite tragic to the family. Five of William Washington's children died with quite a short time period.

Anyway, in 1880 the Gant family still lived together in Mississippi. After the death of Martha Jane, Billy's mother, his father John Isham lived in his household. William worked as a farmer.

Name: W W Gant
Event Type: Census
Event Date: 1880

Event Place: Eureka and Williamson, Panola, Mississippi, United States
Gender: Male
Age: 35
Marital Status: Married
Race: White
Race: W
Occupation: Farmer
Relationship to Head of Household: Self
Relationship to Head of Household: Self
Birth Year (Estimated): 1845
Birthplace: Tennessee, United States
Father's Birthplace: Tennessee, United States
Mother's Birthplace: Tennessee, United States
Sheet Letter: D
Sheet Number: 190
Person Number: 0
Volume: 1


Household

W W Gant, Self, Male, 35, born Tennessee, United States
A G Gant, Wife, Female, 32, born Alabama, United States
N I Gant, Son, Male, 12, born Mississippi, United States
O R Gant, Son, Male, 10, born Mississippi, United States
W I Gant, Son, Male, 9, born Mississippi, United States
M D Gant, Daughter, Female, 7, born Mississippi, United States
R E Gant, Son, Male, 4, born Mississippi, United States
A S Gant, Son, Male, 2, Mississippi, United States
J I Gant, Father, Male, 70, Tennessee, United States

Record Source:
"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4G1-3HZ : 22 August 2017), W W Gant, Eureka and Williamson, Panola, Mississippi, United States; citing enumeration district ED 158, sheet 190D, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0661; FHL microfilm 1,254,661.

It is interesting that in the above census record, Billy's wife is listed as A G Gant - the G part is unknown as in other records Mrs. Gant appears as Alethia Ann. Also, O. R., the son, seemed to be born in 1870/69, not in 1868 as it was stated much later in his death certificate (6).

Liberty Hall - Crystal Spring, Mississippi

Cousin Billy ran a private plantation for 25 years. He retired around 1905 (15). What happened to his plantation I do not know. William's wife passed on 11 October 1906. After that, he moved to Crystal Springs and lived at the house of his fourth son Robert L (Lee?).

William W Gant
United States Census, 1920
Name: William W Gant
Event Type: Census
Event Date: 1920
Event Place: Crystal Springs, Copiah, Mississippi, United States
Gender: Male
Age: 76
Marital Status: Widowed
Race: White
Race: White
Can Read: Yes
Can Write: Yes
Relationship to Head of Household: Father
Relationship to Head of Household: Father
Birth Year (Estimated): 1844
Birthplace: Mississippi
Father's Birthplace: Tennessee
Mother's Birthplace: Tennessee
Sheet Letter A
Sheet Number 7

Household

Robert L Gant, Head, Male. age 47, born Mississippi
Lillie Gant, Wife, Femle, age 36, born Mississippi
Jamie D Gant, Son, M, age 17, born Mississippi
Alethia Gant, Daughter, F, age 12, born Mississippi
William W Gant, Father, M, age 76, born Mississippi

Record Source:
"United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4SL-JR4 : accessed 19 November 2018), William W Gant in household of Robert L Gant, Crystal Springs, Copiah, Mississippi, United States; citing ED 62, sheet 7A, line 24, family 153, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), roll 874; FHL microfilm 1,820,874.

Robert L was called Bob. For over two decades he worked as a professional tracker of criminals on the run. Bob raised Bloodhounds which he used in the chasing business. Robert was quite successful in what he was doing - meaning training the animals and tracking the evildoers. Both Robert and his dogs were well-known in the Mississippi area where they lived.

Lake Chautauqua, Crystal Springs

Actually, due to the amazing skills and the intelligence of the Bloodhounds (commonly known as Gant Bloodhounds), Bob became a sort of local celebrity. A series of articles which told about his "professional adventures" was published in The Monroe-News Star (a New Orleans newspaper) in the 1920s. According to the newspaper articles, Robert cared for the dogs with love, he fed them with eggs, bread and milk. They were also taught not to take the food from anybody else than their owner. (13)

Bloodhound puppy

In April 1920 Bob Gant and his dogs were part of a posse led by Sheriff Nicholson which was set to track and chase the man who killed Charlie McCoy and wounded quite a few others including the murderer trackers. When approached by the Sherrif, Bob and his Bloodhounds, the culprit did not wish to surrender and started shooting again. Sheriff Nicholson was wounded in the forehead, above the right eye, our Bob got a shot in the back of his neck. They managed to catch the shooter anyway. Luckily, the wounds were not fatal and both the lawman and our cousin recovered later. (14)

Chasing the criminals was a dangerous business and Robert jeopardised his life and health doing his job. One time Bob was seriously wounded due to a dynamite explosion. He wrote a note which he fixed to the dog collar of one of his Bloodhounds and told the dog to go and get help. The animal came across two men - it grabbed the jeans of one of the passer-byes and made him go toward the place where his injured carer was. The very same man found the message written by Bob and followed the dog then.

Bob Gants bloodhounds 23 Jul 1922 Brooklyn Daily Eagle NY
Bob Gants bloodhounds 23 Jul 1922 Brooklyn Daily Eagle NY Sun, Jul 23, 1922 – Page 80 · The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, Kings, New York) · Newspapers.com 


In the 30s, William Washington Gant moved to Texas where two of his children Oscar and Mattie lived. Maybe the move was related to Oscar's death who passed in 1935.

William stayed in Dallas at the house of Mattie Desha and her husband Sampson Jackson. As I mentioned before, in the year 1935 and 1936 there were three deaths in the family. William's sons William Irl, Oscar, and Walter Stewart died one by one which probably influenced our Cousin Billy's health as well. He passed on 21 July 1939 at Mattie and Sampson's house which was situated at Cabell Drive in Dallas. The reason of his death was hypostatic pneumonia which means he had been staying in bed for a long time not being able to move from one side to another. Maybe he had suffered from a stroke and paralysis?

William Washington Gant was buried in Crystal Springs, Mississippi, a day later. (16)



Sources:
  • (1) "United States Census, 1910," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MGFG-HNM : accessed 16 November 2018), Gustavus A Pope, Civil District 7, Giles, Tennessee, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 21, sheet 8B, family 157, NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1982), roll 1500; FHL microfilm 1,375,513.
  • (2) "United States Census, 1860", database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8TV-VXW : 12 December 2017), R P Griffith, 1860.
  • (3) "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MDW8-4XD : 15 July 2017), D D Sanders, Memphis, Shelby, Tennessee, United States; citing enumeration district ED 144, sheet 183C, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 1279; FHL microfilm 1,255,279.
  • (4)"United States Headstone Applications for U.S. Military Veterans, 1925-1949", database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VHZC-WHQ : 12 March 2018), William Washington Gant.
  • (5) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Ancestral File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:M473-41H : accessed 15 November 2018), entry for Robert Lee GANT (1L3R-FC8); submitted by bgantt3511831
  • (6) "Tennessee Deaths, 1914-1966," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NSLJ-1TB : 15 October 2018), N.Isom Gant, 12 Apr 1919; Death, Memphis, Shelby, Tennessee, United States, Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville.
  • (7) "Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K3MM-TH8 : 13 March 2018), O R Gant, 26 Jul 1935; citing certificate number 35366, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,116,623.
  • (8) "Louisiana Deaths, 1850-1875, 1894-1960," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FSBR-GTG : 10 March 2018), W W Gant in entry for William Irl Gant, 16 Dec 1935; citing Norwood, East Feliciana, Louisiana, certificate number 14764, State Archives, Baton Rouge; FHL microfilm 2,203,526.
  • (9) "Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K3CN-6KR : 13 March 2018), W W Gant in entry for Mattie Desha Johnson, 19 Jan 1951; citing certificate number 1339, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,074,651.
  • (10) "Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QVVY-QD6K : 13 December 2015), Albert S Gant, 1901; Burial, Crystal Springs, Copiah, Mississippi, United States of America, Crystal Springs Cemetery; citing record ID 27159820, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.
  • (11) "Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K7DZ-DG6 : 13 March 2018), Alethia Anna Norwood in entry for Nellie Mae Puryear, 15 Oct 1946; citing certificate number 44593, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,218,424.
  • (12) "Tennessee Deaths, 1914-1966," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NSH4-6S9 : 15 October 2018), Walter Stewart Gant, 5 Jan 1936; Death, Memphis, Shelby, Tennessee, United States, Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville.
  • (13) "Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K39F-KRL : 13 March 2018), Charles Dewitt Gant, 27 Dec 1946; citing certificate number 55895, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,218,504.
  • (14) The Monroe-News Star, 16 August 1924, Sat., Page 1
  • (15) The Columbian, 22 April 1920, Columbia, Marion Co., MS
  • (16) "Texas Deaths, 1890-1976," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K3M2-DC4 : 13 March 2018), W W Gant, 21 Jul 1939; citing certificate number 32269, State Registrar Office, Austin; FHL microfilm 2,118,256.
Photos:
  • Photo of the gravestone: Natalie Maynor
  • Liberty Hall: GilbertThompson [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons  
  • Lake Chautauqua Crystal Springs: Mississippi Department of Archives and History [No restrictions], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Bloodhound: By Gilliamhome's Olympus E3 and Evolt 500 Page - Flickr: Hoss, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21292208



Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Jackson Harrison Bowman & Madora Ellen Elizabeth Dye

Jackson Harrison Bowman was born on 6 November 1841 in Sweetwater, Monroe County, Tennessee to the family of John P Davis Bowman and Susanna Elisa Jackson.

Sweetwater, Tennessee

Jack came to Texas with his parents and siblings in 1856. The Bowmans settled not north-east of Plano.

Jackson married Miss Madora Ellen Elizabeth Dye, the daughter of Henry Montgomery Dye and Sarah Elizabeth Skiles. Madora was called shortly Dora, she was born on 6 Feb. 1854 in Plano, Collin, TX. On the day of the wedding, Dora was 18 and Jack was 30. The ceremony took place on 13 July 1872.

Dora's father was one of the very early Plano settlers. In 1850, Henry lived with Mr. Joseph C Keppler and Joseph's family. He was a doctor. During the Civil War he was responsible for Confederate hospitals in Arkansas and worked as a surgeon. Mr. Dye was also the one who suggested the name for the town of Plano (derived from the Spanish word "llano" which means "grassy plain"). Doctor Dye was the first founder of the Presbyterian Church in Plano, he donated the land on which the first building of the church was built.

Jackson Harrison Bowman was a successful man, one of the wealthiest persons of Plano. He was the vice-president and one of the directors of the Plano National Bank which was established in 1877.


Clipping Source: The Plano Star-Courier (Plano, Tex.), Vol. 27, No. 32, Ed. 1 Friday, January 14, 1916, newspaper, January 14, 1916; Plano, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth601778/: accessed November 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Collin County Genealogical Society.

G. W. Bowman was George Washington Bowman, Jakson's younger brother. Both brothers were Civil War veterans.

Jackson Harrison Bowman was president of the Plano Cotton Oil Company as well. Besides that, he was an active member of the Presbyterian Church and served as the church board of stewards president for a few decades. 

Dora Ellen Bowman grew up in Plano where she attended the first public school. She continued her education at the female Methodist College in Dallas. Mrs. Bowman was immensely involved in the works of Women's Foreign Missionary Conference (she was the Conference president for many years), Women's Foreign Missionary Society and Women's Home Missionary Society. She supported Christian education of the young people who later took up missionary work abroad. Dora Bowman's leadership fruited with establishing Missionary schools in Cuba and Brazil as well.

Dora and Jack Bowman had four children, three girls and one boy. The youngest daughter Minnie Florance, born in 1872, lived four years only.

Jackson Harrison Bowman passed on 14 March 1923 at his home in Plano. Dora lived seven years longer. She died on 11 April in Houston after a stroke she had suffered from about a week earlier. Mrs. James R. Adams was Fannie May, born on 28 Feb. 1879. Both Jack and Dora were buried in Plano.


Clipping Source: Andrews, C. C. The Celina Record (Celina, Tex.), Vol. 28, No. [43], Ed. 1 Thursday, April 17, 1930, newspaper, April 17, 1930; Celina, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth773087/: accessed November 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Celina Area Historical Association.

What is our family relation to Jackson Harrison Bowman and his wife Dora Ellen?

Jackson Harrison Bowman
his wife Dora Dye
her sister Addie Lee Brown nee Dye (b. 23 June 1866, Plano, Collin, TX/d. 5 Jan. 1930, Collin, TX)
her husband John Wesley Brown (b. 24 Sept. 1858, Sumner, Tennessee/d. 21 Mrch 1934, Plano, Collin, TX)
his brother Robert Jefferson Davis Brown (b. 11 Sept. 1860, Sumner, Tennessee/d. 23 May 1890, Bethany, Collin, TX)
his wife Rachel Clementine Brown/Gant nee Howard - our grandmother


Sources:
  • Collin County, Texas History
  • The Plano Review by H. Grady Chandler, 1914
  • Images of America. Historic Downtown Plano by Janice Craze Cline, Arcadai Publishing, 2012
Photo:
  • Brian Stansberry [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons